Daumier: Depicting the Third World

奥诺雷·杜米埃(Honoré Daumier)(1808–1879)是法国著名油画家、版画家、雕塑家以及漫画家。他出生于法国马赛一个工人家庭,日子清贫,做过学徒,当过信使,做过店员,种种经历使他对下层人民的生活格外了解。

Honoré Daumier (1808–1879) was a famous French painter, printmaker, sculptor, and cartoonist. He was born in a working family in Marseille, France. He lived in poverty, working around multiple jobs to make a living such as apprentice, postman, and shop assistant. All kinds of experiences made him have a better understanding of the lives of the lower classes.

1825年,杜米埃开始进行绘画创作,他的早期作品大多发表在《讽刺》杂志上,反映人民的疾苦,抨击政府的腐败。

In 1825, Daumier began to create paintings. Most of his early works were published in “Satire” magazine, reflecting the people’s suffering and criticizing the government’s corruption.

Gargantua, Honoré Daumier, 1831, lithograph, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris, France

1832年杜米埃因绘制讽刺石版画《高康大》入狱。“高康大”是小说《巨人传》中一个贪得无厌的人物,杜米埃借由这个张开大口吞噬劳动人民劳动成果的人物讽刺路易菲利普。此作一经公开立刻引起轩然大波,杜米埃也因这幅作品入狱。

In 1832, Daumier was imprisoned for drawing the satirical lithograph “Gargantua”. “Gargantua” is a greedy character in the novel “Gargantua and of Pantagruel.” Daumier satirizes Louis Philippe through this character, who exploited the working people from their hard work with a big mouth open. As soon as this work was made public, it immediately caused an uproar.

The Third-Class Carriage(New York), Honoré Daumier, 1862–1864, Oil on canvas, 65.4cm x 90.2cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City

杜米埃的油画作品大多以下层人民的平凡生活为主题,正如这幅《三等车厢》,笔触大胆有力,颜色明暗对比强烈,人物形象粗犷泼辣,极具独创性。

Most of Daumier’s paintings have the theme of the ordinary life of the people in the lower classes. Just like this “The Third-Class Carriage”, bold and powerful brushstrokes, strong color contrast, rough and pungent characters, and as original as it comes from real lives.

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