埃德加·德加(Edgar Degas)(1834–1917),印象派画家、雕塑家。虽然德加被归为印象派,但他本人更愿意视自己为写实主义。印象派的精髓在于捕捉瞬间的颜色和光影,因而要求短时绘画的能力。但德加通常会在经过无数次观察后,记录笔记,而后凭借记忆作画。

Edgar Degas (1834–1917) is known as an impressionist painter and sculptor. Although Degas is classified as an impressionist, he prefers to regard himself as realism. The essence of impressionism is to capture the color and light of every moment, and it requires the ability to paint in a fairly short time. But Degas’s approach is to take notes after countless observations and then connect the dots based on memory.

The Ballet Class, Edgar Degas, 1871–1874, Oil on canvas, 85cm x 75cm, Musee d’Orsay, Paris

芭蕾舞女是德加十分喜爱的题材,他绘制过多幅以此为主题的画作,《芭蕾课》是最为著名的一幅。画中,老师正在指导画面中央的芭蕾舞者,其他的学员则在一旁休息,有的在调整服装,有的在窃窃私语,有的在发呆,有的在挠痒,有的在咬指甲……画面是如此的真实自然,仿佛德加便是舞室中的一员,亲眼看到了这样的场景。但事实上,画面中的一切都是他凭借笔记和记忆安排出来的。也正是因为他高超的创造力,布局力,对线条和构图空间的自如运用,使得他跻身艺术大师中的一员。

Ballerina is one of many subjects that Degas is very fond of. He has painted many paintings on this theme, and “The Ballet Class” is the most famous…


皮埃尔-奥古斯特·雷诺阿(1841–1919)是印象派的代表人物之一,早期绘画风格属于典型印象派,十分注重对光线和色彩的描绘。他的人物画十分出名,人物形象饱满明亮,色彩明艳愉快,画作中总是充满阳光,让人感受到温暖。

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841–1919) is one of the most important figures of Impressionism. The early painting style belongs to the typical impressionism, paying great attention to the depiction of light and color. His figure paintings are very famous. They are famous for bright, colorful, and cheerful combinations. His paintings are always full of sunshine. Lights can penetrate from top to down, from left to right.

Bal du moulin de la Galette, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, 1876, Oil on canvas, 131cm x 175cm, Musee d’Orsay, Paris

《红磨坊的舞会》是雷诺阿的成名之作。雷诺阿并未深度描绘人物的面孔,而是着重于描绘光线透过树荫照在人们身上的光影变化,阳光明媚,树影斑驳,自然元素的融入让画面变得轻松愉快。

“Bal du moulin de la Galette” is Renoir’s signature work. Renoir did not depict the faces of the characters in-depth, but rather focused on depicting the changes of light and shadows that shine through…


奥斯卡-克洛德·莫奈(Oscar-Claude Monet)(1840–1926)印象派的创始人和代表人物。

Oscar-Claude Monet (1840–1926) is the founder and representative of Impressionism.

Impression, sunrise, Claude Monet, 1872, Oil on canvas, 48cm x 63cm, Musée Marmottan Monet, Paris

在莫奈的世界里,光影才是画作真正的主题,他喜欢从不同的角度,在不同的时间点,对同一主题进行描绘。1872年,他在故乡勒阿弗尔创作了“印象”系列绘画,记录码头早晨、白天、傍晚、夜晚的光影变化,《印象·日出》为六幅作品中最出名的一幅。两年之后,“印象”系列在法国巴黎展出,评论家勒鲁阿却给出了“糊墙花纸也比这幅海景更完整”的评价,并借用作品的名称“印象”一词来讽刺作品缺乏细节、模糊、一塌糊涂。

In Monet’s world, light and shadow are the real subjects of the paintings. He likes to portray the same subject from different angles and at different points in time. In 1872, he created the “Impression” series of paintings in his hometown of Le Havre, recording the light and shadow changes of the dock in the morning, day, evening, and night. “Impression·Sunrise” is the most famous of the six works. Two years later, the “Impression” series was exhibited in Paris, France. However, art critic Louis Leroy gave an…


爱德华·马奈(Édouard Manet)(1832–1883)是一位现实主义画家,也是一位印象派画家。他的作品有相当的真实感,十分注重对人物细节的刻画,故而被归为现实主义画派。同时,他的作品主题虽然来源于现实,但却又高于现实,也因此被归入印象派画家。

Édouard Manet (1832–1883) was a realist painter and an impressionist painter. His works have a considerable sense of reality and pay great attention to depicting the details of the characters, so he is classified as a realist school. Simultaneously, although his works’ themes are derived from reality, they are higher than fact, so they are classified as impressionist painters.

Le Déjeuner sur I’herbe, Édouard Manet, 1863, Oil on canvas, 208cm x 264.5cm, Musée d’Orsay, Paris

《草地上的野餐》是马奈的成名之作。画面中一个裸体女子与两个身着正装的男子一同在草地上野餐,在他们前方堆放着女子的衣物和一些食物,在他们的身后还有一位在小溪边的女子。画面中的四个人物神态举止都十分自然,裸体女子似乎正与观众对视,两个男子正在进行交谈,溪边的女子似在戏水,自得其乐。但这样的画面并非写实绘画,更像是艺术家个人的自由声明 — — 绘画可以在技巧上创新,更可以在主题上进行突破。

“Le Déjeuner sur I’herbe” is one of Manet’s most famous works. In the picture, a naked woman and two men in formal attire are having a picnic on the grass. Women’s clothing and some food…


让-巴蒂斯·卡米耶·科洛(Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot)(1796–1875)法国著名的现实主义画家。早年他是一位商人,26岁开始转行,成为一名画家,为后世留下了大量风景画和肖像画。

Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (1796–1875) is a famous French realist painter. In his early years, he was a businessman. At the age of 26, he changed his career and became a painter, leaving behind many landscape paintings and portraits for later generations.

Venise, La Piazzetta, 1835

早年科洛的画作具有轮廓清晰,笔触细腻的特点,胜在“精确”描绘。

In his early years, Corot’s paintings were characterized by clear outlines and delicate brushstrokes, often seen better than “accurate” depictions.


奥诺雷·杜米埃(Honoré Daumier)(1808–1879)是法国著名油画家、版画家、雕塑家以及漫画家。他出生于法国马赛一个工人家庭,日子清贫,做过学徒,当过信使,做过店员,种种经历使他对下层人民的生活格外了解。

Honoré Daumier (1808–1879) was a famous French painter, printmaker, sculptor, and cartoonist. He was born in a working family in Marseille, France. He lived in poverty, working around multiple jobs to make a living such as apprentice, postman, and shop assistant. All kinds of experiences made him have a better understanding of the lives of the lower classes.

1825年,杜米埃开始进行绘画创作,他的早期作品大多发表在《讽刺》杂志上,反映人民的疾苦,抨击政府的腐败。

In 1825, Daumier began to create paintings. Most of his early works were published in “Satire” magazine, reflecting the people’s suffering and criticizing the government’s corruption.

Gargantua, Honoré Daumier, 1831, lithograph, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris, France

1832年杜米埃因绘制讽刺石版画《高康大》入狱。“高康大”是小说《巨人传》中一个贪得无厌的人物,杜米埃借由这个张开大口吞噬劳动人民劳动成果的人物讽刺路易菲利普。此作一经公开立刻引起轩然大波,杜米埃也因这幅作品入狱。

In 1832, Daumier was imprisoned for drawing the satirical lithograph “Gargantua”. “Gargantua”…


古斯塔夫·库尔贝(Gustave Courbet)(1819–1877)是法国著名的现实主义画家,更是现实主义画派的开创者,他的一生都在践行他的一句名言:“我不会画天使,因为我没有见过他们”。

Gustave Courbet (1819–1877) is a famous French realist painter and the pioneer of the realist school. He has practiced his believes all his life: “I don’t think I can paint angels because I have not seen them.”

The Painter’s Studio: A real allegory summing up seven years of my artistic and moral life, Gustave Courbet, 1855, Oil on canvas, 361cm x 598cm, Musée d’Orsay, Paris

《画室》是库尔贝最具有影响力的一幅作品,画面中共有23人,都是对库尔贝的人生带来很大影响的人物。左侧为法国社会的劳苦大众 — — 乞丐、失业者、妓女、农民、商人、神父、濒临死亡的人,他们被称为“以死为生的人”,右侧为一群有理想、有抱负的人,包括画家的同行、社会活动者、诗人等,他们被称为“以生为生的人”。左右两个世界天差地别,画家本人位于正在画面中央作画画,他的身边的小孩或许象征着“无邪”,身旁的裸体模特,似乎是在表明画家不站立场,只做两个世界的忠实描绘者。

“The Painter’s Studio” is Courbet’s most influential work. There are 23 people in the picture, all of whom have greatly influenced Courbet’s life. On the left are the working people of French society — — beggars, unemployed, prostitutes, farmers, businessmen, priests, and people on the verge of death. They are called “people who live by death,” and…


1840年代末,欧洲各国陆续从封建主义向资本主义过渡。社会制度的改变使得财富成为衡量万物的重要标准,人与人之间的关系也渐趋冷漠。在此背景下,客观而冷静地观察并剖析社会,以揭露黑暗、倡导社会改良变的尤为重要。于是现实主义运动开始了,并快速成为艺术、文学的主要流派。现实主义反对夸张的情绪表达,转而追求真实而准确地描绘现实生活中的人物和情景,尤其是那些所谓“不完美”的人和事。

In the late 1840s, European countries gradually transitioned from feudalism to capitalism. Changes in social systems have made wealth an essential criterion for measuring everything, and the relationship between people has increasingly become indifferent. It is particularly important to observe and analyze society objectively and calmly to expose the darkness and advocate social reforms in this context. So the realism movement began and quickly became the primary genre of art and literature. Realism opposes exaggerated emotional expression and instead pursues a true and accurate depiction of people and situations in real life, especially those so-called “imperfect” people and things.


约瑟夫·马洛德·威廉·特纳(Joseph Mallord William Turner)(1775–1851)是英国著名的浪漫主义风景画家。他细致入微地观察自然,巧妙地运用光线、色彩,最终形成自己独特的风格,很大程度上影响了后来的印象派。在英国,他被认为是“真正使英国风景画摆脱意大利、荷兰绘画影响,而走上自己独立道路的两个人之一”。在绘画历史上,他的作品将风景画推向了高潮,使得风景画能够与宗教画、肖像画等画作类别具有同等的地位。

Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775–1851) was a famous British romantic landscape painter. He observed nature meticulously and skillfully used light and color to form his own unique style, which greatly influenced later impressionism. In the United Kingdom, he is regarded as “one of the two people who really freed British landscape painting from the influence of Italian and Dutch paintings and embarked on their own path of independence”. His works have pushed landscape painting to a climax in the history of art, enabling landscape painting to have the same status as religious paintings and portrait paintings.

The Fighting Temeraire, tugged to her last Berth to be broken up, 1838, J.M.W.Turner, 1838, Oil on canvas, 91cm x 122cm, National Gallery, London


卡斯帕·大卫·弗雷德里希(Caspar David Friedrich)(1774–1840)是浪漫主义画派的风景画画家,他的一生都寄情山水,以浪漫而感性的方式表达面对自然时的情感,同时也在诉说自己的故事。

Caspar David Friedrich (1774–1840) is a landscape painter of the Romantic School. He has been passionate about landscapes all his life, expressing his feelings when facing nature with emotions and sensations as if each piece of nature has her own story.

他天性敏感,母亲在他七岁时去世,姐姐在他八岁时去世,十三岁时,哥哥为了救溺水的他丢掉了性命,十七岁时,另外一位姐姐也离开了人世。这些悲痛的经历使得他多愁善感、消极悲观。

He was sensitive by nature. His mother died when he was seven years old. His sister died when he was eight years old. At the age of thirteen, his brother lost his life to save him from drowning. At the age of seventeen, another sister also passed away. …

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