Edgar Degas (1834–1917) is known as an impressionist painter and sculptor. Although Degas is classified as an impressionist, he prefers to regard himself as realism. The essence of impressionism is to capture the color and light of every moment, and it requires the ability to paint in a fairly short time. But Degas’s approach is to take notes after countless observations and then connect the dots based on memory.
Ballerina is one of many subjects that Degas is very fond of. He has painted many paintings on this theme, and “The Ballet Class” is the most famous…
Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841–1919) is one of the most important figures of Impressionism. The early painting style belongs to the typical impressionism, paying great attention to the depiction of light and color. His figure paintings are very famous. They are famous for bright, colorful, and cheerful combinations. His paintings are always full of sunshine. Lights can penetrate from top to down, from left to right.
“Bal du moulin de la Galette” is Renoir’s signature work. Renoir did not depict the faces of the characters in-depth, but rather focused on depicting the changes of light and shadows that shine through…
Oscar-Claude Monet (1840–1926) is the founder and representative of Impressionism.
In Monet’s world, light and shadow are the real subjects of the paintings. He likes to portray the same subject from different angles and at different points in time. In 1872, he created the “Impression” series of paintings in his hometown of Le Havre, recording the light and shadow changes of the dock in the morning, day, evening, and night. “Impression·Sunrise” is the most famous of the six works. Two years later, the “Impression” series was exhibited in Paris, France. However, art critic Louis Leroy gave an…
Édouard Manet (1832–1883) was a realist painter and an impressionist painter. His works have a considerable sense of reality and pay great attention to depicting the details of the characters, so he is classified as a realist school. Simultaneously, although his works’ themes are derived from reality, they are higher than fact, so they are classified as impressionist painters.
《草地上的野餐》是马奈的成名之作。画面中一个裸体女子与两个身着正装的男子一同在草地上野餐，在他们前方堆放着女子的衣物和一些食物，在他们的身后还有一位在小溪边的女子。画面中的四个人物神态举止都十分自然，裸体女子似乎正与观众对视，两个男子正在进行交谈，溪边的女子似在戏水，自得其乐。但这样的画面并非写实绘画，更像是艺术家个人的自由声明 — — 绘画可以在技巧上创新，更可以在主题上进行突破。
“Le Déjeuner sur I’herbe” is one of Manet’s most famous works. In the picture, a naked woman and two men in formal attire are having a picnic on the grass. Women’s clothing and some food…
让-巴蒂斯·卡米耶·科洛(Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot)(1796–1875)法国著名的现实主义画家。早年他是一位商人，26岁开始转行，成为一名画家，为后世留下了大量风景画和肖像画。
Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (1796–1875) is a famous French realist painter. In his early years, he was a businessman. At the age of 26, he changed his career and became a painter, leaving behind many landscape paintings and portraits for later generations.
In his early years, Corot’s paintings were characterized by clear outlines and delicate brushstrokes, often seen better than “accurate” depictions.
Honoré Daumier (1808–1879) was a famous French painter, printmaker, sculptor, and cartoonist. He was born in a working family in Marseille, France. He lived in poverty, working around multiple jobs to make a living such as apprentice, postman, and shop assistant. All kinds of experiences made him have a better understanding of the lives of the lower classes.
In 1825, Daumier began to create paintings. Most of his early works were published in “Satire” magazine, reflecting the people’s suffering and criticizing the government’s corruption.
In 1832, Daumier was imprisoned for drawing the satirical lithograph “Gargantua”. “Gargantua”…
Gustave Courbet (1819–1877) is a famous French realist painter and the pioneer of the realist school. He has practiced his believes all his life: “I don’t think I can paint angels because I have not seen them.”
《画室》是库尔贝最具有影响力的一幅作品，画面中共有23人，都是对库尔贝的人生带来很大影响的人物。左侧为法国社会的劳苦大众 — — 乞丐、失业者、妓女、农民、商人、神父、濒临死亡的人，他们被称为“以死为生的人”，右侧为一群有理想、有抱负的人，包括画家的同行、社会活动者、诗人等，他们被称为“以生为生的人”。左右两个世界天差地别，画家本人位于正在画面中央作画画，他的身边的小孩或许象征着“无邪”，身旁的裸体模特，似乎是在表明画家不站立场，只做两个世界的忠实描绘者。
“The Painter’s Studio” is Courbet’s most influential work. There are 23 people in the picture, all of whom have greatly influenced Courbet’s life. On the left are the working people of French society — — beggars, unemployed, prostitutes, farmers, businessmen, priests, and people on the verge of death. They are called “people who live by death,” and…
In the late 1840s, European countries gradually transitioned from feudalism to capitalism. Changes in social systems have made wealth an essential criterion for measuring everything, and the relationship between people has increasingly become indifferent. It is particularly important to observe and analyze society objectively and calmly to expose the darkness and advocate social reforms in this context. So the realism movement began and quickly became the primary genre of art and literature. Realism opposes exaggerated emotional expression and instead pursues a true and accurate depiction of people and situations in real life, especially those so-called “imperfect” people and things.
约瑟夫·马洛德·威廉·特纳(Joseph Mallord William Turner)(1775–1851)是英国著名的浪漫主义风景画家。他细致入微地观察自然，巧妙地运用光线、色彩，最终形成自己独特的风格，很大程度上影响了后来的印象派。在英国，他被认为是“真正使英国风景画摆脱意大利、荷兰绘画影响，而走上自己独立道路的两个人之一”。在绘画历史上，他的作品将风景画推向了高潮，使得风景画能够与宗教画、肖像画等画作类别具有同等的地位。
Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775–1851) was a famous British romantic landscape painter. He observed nature meticulously and skillfully used light and color to form his own unique style, which greatly influenced later impressionism. In the United Kingdom, he is regarded as “one of the two people who really freed British landscape painting from the influence of Italian and Dutch paintings and embarked on their own path of independence”. His works have pushed landscape painting to a climax in the history of art, enabling landscape painting to have the same status as religious paintings and portrait paintings.
卡斯帕·大卫·弗雷德里希(Caspar David Friedrich)(1774–1840)是浪漫主义画派的风景画画家，他的一生都寄情山水，以浪漫而感性的方式表达面对自然时的情感，同时也在诉说自己的故事。
Caspar David Friedrich (1774–1840) is a landscape painter of the Romantic School. He has been passionate about landscapes all his life, expressing his feelings when facing nature with emotions and sensations as if each piece of nature has her own story.
He was sensitive by nature. His mother died when he was seven years old. His sister died when he was eight years old. At the age of thirteen, his brother lost his life to save him from drowning. At the age of seventeen, another sister also passed away. …